Job analysis in HRM is a systematic and in-depth examination of jobs. It is a process for determining a new hire’s duties, skill requirements, and personality traits, and his/her job role. Job analysis includes job descriptions and job specifications, which are then utilized in recruitment, compensation, performance appraisal, and training.
The job analysis process involves careful planning, scrutiny, and research to find the best candidates.
Let us understand why job analysis is important.
Importance of Job Analysis
Job analysis is rightly called the building block of HR management for the following reasons.
1. Work Redesign
Often organizations need to redesign strategies to make work more efficient and expedite processes. A thorough job analysis gives you detailed information about existing jobs and lets you create fresh designs without hassles.
2. Human Resource Planning
As planners analyze human resource needs, they need to have accurate information on all aspects. Job analysis lets them get all the details and much more, which can simplify their work.
It helps decision-makers identify the most qualified applicants for various positions. Moreover, it lets them gauge their knowledge skills and abilities.
Each employee requires training. Job analysis lets you set the basis of that program and provide adequate training to your new recruits.
5. Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisals require information about how well each employee is performing. Moreover, the job analysis process also involves checking the performance of individuals that is below standard. Not only does job analysis helps in identifying the behaviors and the results associated with effective performance, but it also lets you devise mechanisms to address them.
6. Career Planning
Matching an employee’s skills and aspirations with career opportunities is an important step. Job analysis lets you understand the skill requirements for various jobs. This allows HR managers to guide individuals into jobs in which they will succeed and be satisfied.
Uses of Job Analysis
Here is where you can use a job analysis for.
- Forecasting human resources of the organization
- For recruiting purposes, job analysis provides information on qualifications necessary to perform jobs.
- Placing the right candidate on the right job at the right time
- Serving as a foundation for job evaluation
- Provides necessary information for training and development programs of employees.
- Establishing clear-cut standards for the development of performance appraisal systems
- Helping management look at the hazards associated with the machinery and tools.
4 Methods Used for Job Analysis
The job analysis method can take various forms. These include:
The questionnaire is designed so that all data about descriptions of duties, machines, terminology of jobs, equipment used, working conditions, etc., can be collected. It is filled both by employees/subordinates and supervisors. The questionnaire must be very clear, understandable, and relevant. If it cannot bring out responses of employees/managers, it should be discarded, and a fresh one should be made.
2. Written Narratives
In this system, the employee keeps a daily record of major duties performed and marks the time when each is started and completed. This becomes a tool in getting the information relating to different jobs. However, this information may be incomplete and unorganized. Thus, you would need to supplement it with interviews, etc.
In this method, the job analysts observe the job while people are doing it. They check the tasks performed on the job, the pace of work, working conditions, and other related matters. Based on these observations, they make a job analysis.
The analyst personally interviews the employees while they are performing the job. A standard format is used to collect data from employees. These interviews are often done with observation tools to clarify all questions. In this analysis, employees may not always come out with real information. However, an intelligent analyst can shift relevant information from irrelevant one.
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